Male infertility refers to a male's inability to cause pregnancy in a fertile female. In humans it accounts for 40–50% of infertility. Male infertility is commonly due to deficiencies in the semen, and semen quality is used as a surrogate measure of male fecundity. Deficiencies in the semen are the cause of the following diseases.
.Asthenozoospermia is an infertility condition in men where a man produces low motility sperm. Motility is the ability of the sperm to travel forward rapidly and in a straight line. It is an essential requirement of a natural conception. Reduced sperm motility reduces the chances of the sperm being successfully fertilized in the female reproductive tract. Asthenozoospermia intercepts the production of cell energy that helps the sperm swim easily to a woman in the uterus, causing infertility. Sperm motility plays an extremely important role in the design process. The ejaculated sperm must be swift to penetrate the cervical mucus, swim in the uterus, and eventually penetrate the layers of the egg to fertilize the ovum. Causes: Causes of complete asthenozoospermia include metabolic defects, ultrastructural disorders of flagellum sperm, and necrozoospermia.
Azoospermia is a lack of sperm in seminal fluid. In humans, azoospermia affects about 1% of the male population.
1: Pre-testicular Azoospermia (non-obstructive): In pre-testicular azoospermia, the testicles and genital tract are normal but are not appropriately stimulated by the hormonal system to produce sperm. The defects in the hypothalamus and/or pituitary gland, both of which are located in the brain, cause a hormonal imbalance that prevents normal testicles from being stimulated to produce sperm.
Causes : Pretesticular azoospermia is associated with poor nutrition, the use of certain medications (e.g., particular chemotherapies, narcotics), pituitary tumors, trauma, and low testosterone (hypogonadism).
2: Testicular Azoospermia: Testicular azoospermia indicates that there is a sperm production defect in the testicles themselves. The disorder may be congenital (i.e. the problem is present at birth) or acquired. The production of sperm may be completely absent or may involve arrest during the early or late stage of sperm maturation.
Testicular azoospermia causes can be divided into two parts these are:
Congenital causes of testicular azoospermia include conditions such as undescended testicles , Klinefelter’s syndrome, and Sertoli-cell-only syndrome. A variety of genetic abnormalities may also impair sperm production. The two most common categories of genetic errors causing testicular azoospermia are:
Testicular azoospermia may be acquired as a result of infection (e.g. mumps orchitis, malaria), exposure to pesticides and chemicals, testicular trauma, cancer and cancer treatment, or radiation therapy. Azoospermia may also be associated with varicocele (an abnormal enlargement of the veins draining the testicle) which may cause testicular hyperthermia (overheating).
3: Post testicular Azoospermia: In post-testicular azoospermia, also called obstructive azoospermia, sperm is produced by normal testicles but is not ejaculated due to an obstruction of the genital tract.
Hyperspermia is a condition that causes a person to produce a large amount of semen, a fluid that contains sperm. Hyperspermia is a relatively rare condition compared with other issues that affect sperm. It does not cause any physical changes or health conditions. However, it may reduce fertility. Hyperspermia is a disease that occurs when a person produces more semen than normal. Doctors usually describe this quantity as more than 5.5 milliliters ( ml) per ejaculation, although some have a slightly higher limit of 6 ml per ejaculation.
Causes: The exact cause of hyperspermia is yet to be known. However, it is believed to be caused due to the below-given factors:
Hypospermia is male diagnosis characterized by reduced semen volume, Semen volume lower than 1,5 ml is classified as hypospermia. It is the logical opposite of hyperspermia. It should not be confused with oligospermia, which means low sperm count..
Causes: Hypospermia can be a result of various other conditions or abnormalities. Trauma associated with exercise or surgery is associated with causing complications in the male reproductive system. Lifestyle habits and congenital defects too are factors. Here are the main causes of hypospermia
Terms oligospermia, oligozoospermia, and low sperm count refer to semen with a low concentration of sperm. A healthy sperm amount is often necessary for fertility. The World Health Organization (WHO) classifies sperm counts at or above 15 million sperm per milliliter (mL) of semen as average. Anything below that is considered low and is diagnosed as oligospermia.
Varicocele: Enlarged veins in a man’s scrotum can disrupt blood flow to the testicles. This can cause the temperature in the testicles to increase. Any increase in temperature can negatively impact sperm production. About 40 percent of men with low sperm numbers or low sperm quality count have this common issue.
Viruses like sexually transmitted infections can reduce the sperm amount in semen.
While many men with oligospermia have typical ejaculations, some ejaculation problems may reduce sperm count. Retrograde ejaculation is one such issue. This occurs when semen enters the bladder instead of leaving from the tip of the penis.
Other things that may interfere with typical ejaculation include:
Beta blockers, antibiotics, and blood pressure medications may cause ejaculation
problems and reduce sperm count.
The brain and the testicles produce several hormones that are responsible for ejaculation and sperm production. An imbalance in any of these hormones may lower sperm count numbers.
Exposure to chemicals and metals
Pesticides, cleaning agents, and painting materials are a few of the chemicals that can reduce sperm count. Exposure to heavy metals, such as lead, can cause this problem, too.
Sitting frequently, placing laptops over your genitals, and wearing tight clothing may all contribute to overheating. An increase in temperature around the testicles may temporarily reduce sperm production. It’s unclear what long-term complications may occur.
Drug and alcohol use
The use of some substances, including marijuana and cocaine, may reduce sperm counts. Excessive drinking can do the same. Men who smoke cigarettes may have lower sperm counts than men who do not smoke.
Being overweight or obese increases your risk for low sperm counts in several ways. Excess weight can directly reduce how much sperm your body can make. Weight problems may also interfere with hormone production.
Necrospermia (or necrozoospermia) is a condition in which there is a low percentage of live sperm and a very high percentage of immotile sperm in semen.
There are two types of necrozoospermia. These are as follow:
1: Incomplete necrozoospermia is when many but not all of the sperm in a semen sample are dead. Typically, when less than 45%, but more than 5%, are viable.
2: Complete necrozoospermia is when all the sperm in a semen sample are dead.
It’s not entirely clear what causes necrozoospermia. Because it is so rare, there are a lot of unknowns.
Some possible causes and theories behind necrozoospermia include...4
Teratospermia, also referred to as teratozoospermia, is defined as abnormal sperm morphology (shape), caused by either defect in the head, midpiece and/or tail. It is a disorder in which males produce wonky-looking sperms. This, in turn, affects their chances of fertilizing the eggs.
The causes of teratospermia are not clearly defined and are difficult to determine. However, physiological stress is said to have an effect on the morphology of the sperms. The following factors are suggested to be the most common causes: